For a great introduction to building and running a distributed system with Apache Mesos, watch Benjamin Hindman's talk on YouTube. If anything could be considered required reading, it would be the official white paper: Mesos: A Platform for Fine-Grained Resource Sharing in the Data Center.
How To Build
See the building documentation to learn how to build Mesos from source on various platforms.
Read the beginner contribution guide for a first-time introduction to the process of contributing to Mesos. For the standard day-to-day workflow for advanced Mesos contributors, read our advanced contribution guide. The latter guide also includes information on our core libraries, stout and libprocess, with which new developers should get familiar.
Refer to the community page for our mailing lists, Slack, IRC, and JIRA issue tracker.